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垃圾处理开始全烧,飞灰监管完全失控!
已阅:644  2017/2/8

家园导读

FENSHAOFACHULILAJIJUYOUCHULISUDUKUAI、LAJIJIANRONGJIANZHONGBIDA、KEHUISHOULIYONGRENENGDENGYOUDIAN,JINNIANLAIZAIGUONEIDEDAOLEXUNSUTUIGUANGJIYINGYONG。DANSHIFENSHAOYANQICHULIDEFENLIANGYUELAIYUEZHONG,CHANSHENGDEFEIHUIFUJILEYOUHAIDEPb、Zn、CrDENGZHONGJINSHU,ZHEIGEHUIYUELAIYUEDUOYUELAIYUEMAFAN,CHULITADENANDUJIUHUIYUELAIYUEDA。


什么是飞灰

ZAIYULAJIFENSHAOYOUGUANDETAOLUNHEBAODAOZHONG,JINGCHANGCHUXIANYIGEZIMUJIASHUZIDEZUHE——HW18,TASHI“FEIHUI”,WEIJU《GUOJIAWEIXIANFEIWUMINGLU》ZHONGDEDISHIBAHAO。FEIHUIZHONGHANYOUERWUYING、KEBEISHUIJINCHUJIAOGAONONGDUDECd、Pb、Cu、ZnHECrDENGDUOZHONGYOUHAIZHONGJINSHUWUZHIHEYANLEI,SHILAJIFENSHAOYUNXINGGUOCHENGZHONG,XUYAOBEIZHONGDIANGUANZHUDEDUIXIANG。


YIXIAGUANYUFEIHUIDEWENZHANG,SHI7YUE6RIYOUWUHUSHENGTAIZHONGXINHEZIRANZHIYOULIANHEJUBANDE“XINBIAOZHUNXIASHENGHUOLAJIFENSHAOCHANGXINXIGONGKAIYUJIANGUANYANTAOHUI”ZHONG,ZIRANZHIYOUHUIYUANGUANZHONGFABIAODE《FEIHUI,LAJIFENSHAOJIANGUANDEZHONGZHONGZHIZHONG》DEBAOGAO。YOUXIAOBIANZHENGLIBINGJINGXUANNEIRONGBIANJICHENGWEN。


垃圾开启“全烧”时代,焚烧失控!


进入2016年,我国生活垃圾处理焚烧总量、焚烧比例和单体焚烧炉焚烧量三重失控。


焚烧总量失控

SHUJUXIANSHI,JIEZHI2015NIAN4YUE,WOGUOMUQIANCHOUJIAN、QIANYUE、ZAIJIANHEYIJINGTOUCHANDELAJIFENSHAOCHANGGONGGUIHUACHULILAJIMEITIAN466955DUN,ZONGJIMEINIAN1.71YIDUN,BISHIERWUGUIHUAYUQIDEMEINIAN1.1211YIDUNCHAOCHULE50%DUO。


2  焚烧比例失控

2014NIANQUANGUO653GESHESHICHENGSHISHENGHUOLAJIQINGYUNLIANG1.79YIDUN,RUGUOBUJIFEICHENGSHISHUJU,ZEJIEZHI2015NIAN5YUE,QUANGUOGUIHUAFENSHAOBILIYIJINGDADAO95.8%(1.71/1.79)。CIWAI,ZHONGQING、SHENZHEN、HANGZHOUDENGCHENGSHIDESHENGHUOLAJIFENSHAOBILVYIJINGJIEJIN100%。


3 单体焚烧炉焚烧量失控

BEIJINGLUJIASHANDANTIZONGHEGUIHUAMEITIANFENSHAO6000DUN,SHENZHENDONGBULAJIFENSHAOCHANGGUIHUAMEITIANFENSHAO6000DUN,GUANGZHOULUOGANGGUIHUAMEITIAN10000WANDUN,DADACHAOGUOBIAOZHUNZHIZUIDALEIBIETEDALEILAJIFENSHAOCHANG。


一味依赖垃圾焚烧来应对垃圾围城,不但无法减缓自然资源的损耗,这样的选择背后也隐藏着很大的环境污染和健康的隐患,还有一种“懒惰”的逻辑。更令人担忧的是,类似的逻辑也延伸到了垃圾焚烧的各个环节之中。


飞灰处理面临的三大难题


ZAILAJIFENSHAOCHANSHENGDEGEZHONGWURANWU(YANQI、SHENLVYE、LUZHAHEFEIHUI),FEIHUIDECHULINANDUHEWEIHAIDOUSHIZUIDADE,FEIHUIWENTISHILAJIFENSHAOJIANGUANDEZHONGZHONGZHIZHONG。JUTILAIJIANG,FEIHUICHULIMIANLINZHESANDANANTI。


第一难题:总量巨大,无害化处理率不会超过10%

LAJIFENSHAOCHANSHENGDEFEIHUIZONGLIANGJUDA,WOGUOJIN2014NIAN1NIANJIUCHANSHENGLE400WANDUNFEIHUI。RANER,YOUYUQUEFAKEKAODETONGJISHUJU,LINIANLAIWOGUOLAJIFENSHAOFEIHUIZHENSHIDEWUHAIHUACHULILVBUDEERZHI。DANSHIGENJUQINGHUADAXUELIUJIANGUOJIAOSHOUDEGUSUAN400WANDUNWUHAIHUACHULILVBUHUICHAOGUO10%,ZHEIJIUYIWEIZHEFEIHUIYIJINGCHENGWEISHENGHUOLAJIFENSHAOQUANGUOCHENGWURANKONGZHIHEFENGXIANGUANLIZHONGZUIWEIBORUODEHUANJIE。


第二难题:飞灰的处理成本高昂。

ANQUANTIANMAICHANGTOUZICHENGBENJIAOGAO,YIMEIDUNFEIHUIDESHUINIGUHUA500YUANHEZHENGGUIWEIFEICHULICHANGRUCHANGFEIYONG1500YUANJISUAN,ZHEHEDAOMEIDUNSHENGHUOLAJIDECHULICHENGBEN,JIXIELUPAIFENSHAOLUZENGJIAYUE60DAO100YUAN,LIUHUACHUANGFENSHAOLUZENGJIAYUE200YUANDAO300YUAN。YAOZHIDAO,ZHIYOUGAOTOUZIGAOCHULIFEIYONGCAINENGKONGZHIFENSHAOGUOCHENGDEFEIHUIHUANJINGWURAN。GUONEIQIYEWANGWANGBUJINXINGGUHUACHULIJIUZHIJIETIANMAI,JIAJULEHUANJINGWURANFENGXIAN。



CONGTOUZIJINELAIBIJIAO,SHANGTUZHANSHIDESHIGUONEIWAIDIANXINGCHENGSHISHENGHUOLAJIFENSHAOCHULIJIFADIANCHANGTOUZIDUIBI,ZUIGAODESHIDONGJINGYOUMINGTOUZIJINEGAODA472.5WANYUAN/DUN,QICISHIDEGUOKELONG188.5WANYUAN/DUN,ERZHONGGUODESHENZHENQINGSHUIHEHEPUDONGYUQIAOFENBIESHI28.9WANYUAN/DUNHEYUE73WANYUAN/DUN。


CONGCHULIFEIYONGLAIBIJIAO,GUOJISHANG,LAJIFENSHAOCHULIFEIYONGJIQIANGGUI,GAOFEIYONGBAOZHANGLEFENSHAOGUOCHENGWURANDEKEKONG。MEIDUNLAJICHULIFEIYONG,SHIJIEYINXING2005NIANJICHUDEPINGJUNSHUJUSHI150MEIYUAN(HERENMINBI1041.66YUAN),HELANSHI160OUYUAN(HERENMINBI1184YUAN),DEGUOSHI200OUYUAN(HERENMINBI1480YUAN),ERWOGUOSHENGHUOLAJIFENSHAOCHULIZHONGBIAOJIAGEYIBANWEIMEIDUN60YUANZHI80YUAN。


ERQIE,JINNIANLAIWOGUOLAJIFENSHAOCHULIBAOJIAJINGRANCHIXUZOUDI,2015NIAN6YUEXINTAILAJIFENSHAOFADIANXIANGMUBAOCHU48YUAN/DUNKAISHI,QIHOULAJIFENSHAOLINGYUZHONGBIAOJIAGECHIXUXIAJIANG。2015NIAN8YUEANHUIBANGBUSHENGHUOLAJIFENSHAOFADIANXIANGMU26.8YUAN/DUN,2015NIAN10YUEJIANGSUGAOYOUSHENGHUOLAJIFENSHAOFADIANXIANGMU26.5YUAN/DUN,2015NIAN12YUEZHEJIANGSHAOXINGXIANGMUYI18YUAN/DUNDEBAOJIAZAIDUSHUAXINXINGYEDIXIAN。JINJINSHUYUESHIJIAN,ZHONGBIAOZUIDIJIACONG48YUAN/DUNZHOUJIANGZHI18YUAN/DUN,JIANGFUDA62%。RUCIDIDECHULIFEIYONG,LINGRENDUILAJIFENSHAODEWURANKONGZHIXIAOGUOCHANSHENGHUAIYI。


第三难题飞灰污染严重且难以完全控制。

FEIHUIFUJILEDALIANGZHONGJINSHUYUEREYING,HANYOUZHEIXIEGAODUXINGCHENGFENDESHENLVYEJINRUTURANGHEDIXIASHUIZHIZHONG,BIJIANGDUIRENLEIHEZIRANHUANJINGCHANSHENGZHANGQIWEIHAI。


MUQIANWOGUODEFEIHUI,BUFENSHITONGGUOTIANMAICHANGZUOWEIZUIHOUDECHUZHIDANWEI。ZHONGJINSHURONGYUSUAN,ZAITIANMAIDUITISUANXINGTIAOJIANXIA,ZHONGJINSHUHUIDALIANGJINCHU,WURANTURANGHEDIXIASHUI;CONGBIAOZHONGKEYIKANCHUQIANDEJINCHUNONGDUCHAOGUOLEGUTIFEIWUJINCHUDUXINGDEJIANBIEBIAOZHUNZHI,SUOYI,FENSHAOFEIHUIZUOWEIYIZHONGWEIXIANGUFEI,BIXUYAOJINXINGWENDINGHUACHULI。


ERGUANYUWOGUOFEIHUIJINGGUOWENDINGHUACHULIHOU,ZAITIANMAIDEBILIBUDEERZHI,TAIBUHUITAILEGUAN,ZHEISHEJIFEIYONGWENTI。 


即使是一些垃圾焚烧处理费用远高于中国的国家,渗漏情况也难以遏制。法国填埋场每平方公里有个203漏洞,意大利有1532个漏洞,美国也有2251个。国际上发达国家尚且如此,国内怎么可能例外?


飞灰危局出路何在?


SHOUXIAN,XUYAOJIAQIANGXINGZHENGZHILI。MUQIAN,WOGUOYIJINGYISHIDAOFEIHUIDEWEIHAIXING,SHISANWUGUIHUAZHONGZHUANMENLIECHUDANXIANG,YAOQIUDUIWEIXIANFEIWUJINXINGMODIDIAOCHABINGJINXINGFANGZHI,YIJINGJIANGFEIHUIGUIWEIGAODUCHIJIUXINGFEIWUDENGDEZONGHEZHENGZHIJIHUAZHONG。


QICI,SIFAZHILIYESHIHUANJIEFEIHUIKUNJUDEGUANJIANSUOZAI。ZUIGAORENMINFAYUANGANGGANGFABUDE2016NIAN12HAOWENJIAN,MINGQUEYAOQIUFAHUIHUANJINGZIYUANXINGZHENGSHENPANJIANDUHEYUFANGGONGNENG,CHACHUJIANSHEXIANGMUWEIPINGXIANPI、WEIPIXIANJIANDENGWEIFAXINGWEI,FANGZHICUNZAIZHONGDASHENGTAIHUANJINGFENGXIANDEXIANGMUKAIGONGJIANSHE。DANSHIMUQIANWEIZHI,WOGUOHAISHANGWEICHUXIANGUORENHESIFAJIERULAJIFENSHAOFEIHUILINGYUDEANLI,XIWANG2016NIANYOUSUOTUPO。


DISANSHISHEHUIZHILI。FEIZHENGFUZUZHIXUYAOJINYIBUTUIDONGXINXIGONGKAI,JIUFEIHUIJINRUTIANMAICHANGHOUZHONGJINSHUHEEREYINGJIANCEZHANKAIZHUANXIANGDIAOYAN。


DISIXUNSHIZHUANXIANGZHILIHUOMIANTIAOKUAN。XINDEGUOJIAWEIFEIMULUDEHUOMIANTIAOKUANJIDUANBUFUZEREN,YINGXIANGZHONGJIWEIDILIUXUNSHIZUZHIJIEFANYING,YAOQIUQUXIAOLAJIFENSHAOFEIHUIDEHUOMIANTIAOKUAN。


垃圾焚烧、飞灰危局与垃圾分类


2000NIAN6YUE1RIZHUJIANBUZAIQUANGUO8GECHENGSHIQIDONGLAJIFENLEI,DAOXIANZAI15NIANLE,WEIHESHIBAI?


CONG《NANFANGZHOUMO》2016NIAN6YUE23RIDEBAODAO,KEYIKANCHUFENSHAODUILAJIFENLEIDEYINGXIANG,“GUANGHUANTOULONGDUANLAJICHULIDELINGYIXIANGBIBINGSHI,GUANGZHOUQUEFAFAZHANLAJIFENSHAOYIWAIDEJISHUDONGLI。‘PANSHENGSHENHEWOTAOLUNDEZHONGJIHUATISHI:WEISHENMEYAOZUOLAJIFENLEI’LINQISHUO,‘MEIFENCHULAIYIDUN,TAJIUSHAOYIDUNFENSHAODEBUTIE,JIUSHAOYIDUNDESHOURU。”ZHEIBUJINJINSHIGUANGZHOUDUYOU,ZHEIYESHIQUANGUOGEDILAJILAJIFENLEICHICHIWUJINZHANDEHENZHONGYAOYUANYINZHIYI。


ERLINGYIDIANYEHENZHONGYAO,SHIJIESHANGJUEDADUOSHUGUOJIA,CHUTAIGUOGUIGONGYEBUZHUGUANWAI,SHENGHUOFEIQIWUDEGUANLIZHINENGDADOUSHEZAIDANDUDEHUANBAOBUHUOJUYOUHUANBAOZHINENGDEHUANBAOBUMEN。


WOGUOYINGCANZHAOGUOJIGUANLI,QIDONGZHUJIANBUZHINENGGAIGE,JIANGSHENGHUOFEIQIWUGUANLIZHINENGCONGZHUJIANBUHUAZHUANDAOHUANBAOBU,YIBIANGENGJIAQINGXIJIEDINGSHENGHUOFEIQIWUWURANKONGZHIDEGUANLISHUXING。


DANGXIA,WOGUOXUYAOZAIZHENGFU、QIYEHEJUMINGEGECENGMIANDALITUIXINGLAJIFENLEIHELAJIDEZIYUANHUAHUISHOUCHULI,GENGGUANJIANDESHIYAOZHUJIANNIUZHUANLAJI“QUANSHAO”DEQUSHI,JIANSHAOFENSHAOZONGLIANG,CAINENGCONGGENBENSHANGPOJIEFENSHAONANTIHEFEIHUIWEIJU。


WENZHANGLAIYUAN:LAIYUAN:HUAGONG707  ZIRANZHIYOU

 
 
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